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0-9

  • 2-Point Audio System (point-to-point) —  A 2-point audio system is a point-to-point system consisting of one audio transmitter (Tx) unit and one audio receiver (Rx) unit.
  • 2.4 GHz ISM Band —  The 2.4 GHz ISM Band is a band of frequencies (from 2.40 GHz to 2.84 GHz) that have been allocated by the federal government for un-licensed use in industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) products.
  • 3-Point Audio System (multipoint) —  A 3-point audio system is a multipoint system consisting of one audio transmitter (Tx) unit and two audio receiver (Rx) units, with the Rx units typically configured as one left audio channel receive device, and one right audio channel receive device.
  • 5-Level Error Protection —  Fundamental aspect of SPIKE that ensures high reliability and low latency wireless communication with 5 redundant error-protection levels.
  • 802.11 (WiFi) —  In wireless LAN (WLAN) technology, 802.11 refers to a family of specifications developed by a working group of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). There are several specifications in the family including 802.11, 802.11a, and 802.11b. Data speeds are generally 1 Mbps or 2 Mbps for 802.11, and 5.5 Mbps or 11 Mbps for 802.11b, although speeds up to about 20 Mbps are realizable with 802.11b. This technology was formally accepted as a standard in 1997.

A-C

  • Active Bond Receive Mode —  An Eleven Engineering term that describes a system where a wireless transmitter device maintains a 2-way digitized signal to one or two wireless receiver devices. The transmission takes place with data acknowledgement feedback from the wireless receiver device(s) back to the transmitter device for the purpose of maintaining a high level if signal integrity with the wireless transmitter. The wireless transmitter and receive are said to be actively bonded together.
  • AES17 Low-Pass Filter —  An AES17 Low-Pass Filter is a filter circuit that is connected from the output of an audio device (under test) and to the input of audio analyzer test equipment to filter out all audio signal frequency components above 20 kHz. The low pass filter that is specified by the AES17 specification has the following characteristics: (a) passband response deviation: <= 0.1 dB, 10 Hz <= f <= 20 kHz; and (b) stop-band attenuation > 60 dB, f > 24 KHz.
  • Airplay® —  The world's first radio wireless controller for PlayStation® (Sony®) video game consoles. Designed, manufactured and marketed by Eleven Engineering Inc.
  • Analog Joysticks and Keys —  Control functions that operate on a "touch-sensitive" basis. The pressure exerted on an analog key or joystick corresponds to the degree of motion of the object being controlled.
  • Antenna Diversity —  Involves an RF device with two or more antennae, and refers to a programming technique of changing from one receive/transmit antenna to another to get the best noise free radio frequency reception between the two devices.
  • Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) —  An integrated circuit is a chip designed specifically for one application or device.
  • Audio Conditioning (Interpolation) —  A programming technique to smooth out an analog audio signal after it has been converted from digitized audio samples back to an analog audio output. Interpolation is one method of smoothing digitized audio in-between a step of two specific digital audio samples and results in a smoothed analog audio signal.
  • Audio Frequency Response —  Audio Frequency Response describes a range of audio frequencies that the system is designed to reproduce. Audio systems typically have an audio frequency response from 20Hz (low-pitched bass) to 20kHz (high-pitched treble). The frequency response spec is usually assumed to be the -3 dB points unless stated otherwise. (i.e. 20 to 20kHz +/- 1dB)
  • Audio Sampling —  Refers to sampling an analog audio signal with an analog-to-digital converter circuit into a series of digital numbers that represent the original audio signal. For example, the Squeak WHAM module typically samples analog audio into 16-bit digital numbers at a rate of 48,000 times per second (i.e. 48kHz).
  • Auto Mute —  A function that is typically included as a feature in an audio product to automatically mute the output audio under certain undesirable conditions: Poor RF reception, high loss of data packets, data packet bit errors, no audio data received, etc.
  • Auto Repeat —  A feature commonly used in video gaming that allows a player to program an action to continuously repeat with the touch of one key or trigger.
  • Bidirectional Voice —  Two-way audio communication typically with one channel of audio in each direction.
  • BlueTooth® —  Bluetooth is a telecommunications industry specification that describes how mobile phones, computers, and personal digital assistants (PDAs) can easily interconnect with each other and with home and business phones, and computers using a short-range wireless connection. Bluetooth uses the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band.
  • BondKey™ —  A SPIKE feature that allows the user to bond a wireless video game controller with a QuadX transceiver, move from port to port on the transceiver, and jump from one QuadX to another.
  • BondLite™ —  On the SPIKE wireless video game control system an indicator light on the QuadX transceiver and wireless controller that displays the port to which each control device is bonded and that a bond is indeed established.
  • Broadband Wireless —  Compared with conventional wireless that might send only 100 000 bits per second, Broadband Wireless sends 1.5 million bits per second. Switching to Broadband Wireless is like switching from a dial up modem (56 kbps) to DSL or Cable modem (both deliver about 1.5 million bits per second).
  • Broadcast —  Broadcast refers to a common configuration of a system of devices where there is one base unit that feeds data to the other devices in the system at the same time.
  • Broadcast Mode —  Describes a system where a wireless transmitter device sends a 1-way digitized signal to one or more wireless receiver devices. The transmission takes place without data acknowledgement feedback from the wireless receiver devices back to the transmitter device for the purpose of maintaining a high level if signal integrity with the wireless transmitter. By Eleven Engineering's definition, the term "Broadcast Mode" also implies that no 2-way bonds (or links) exist between the original wireless transmitter and any wireless receiver for the purpose maintaining a 2-way data integrity link.
  • Channel Width —  Describes how wide a radio channel spans in frequency. For example, a frequency channel that spans from 2.40GHz to 2.41GHz has a channel width of 10 MHz (i.e. 2.402 GHz - 2.400 GHz = 0.002 GHz = 2MHz)
  • Chipset —  A chipset is a pair or group of microchips which are designed to work together and are sold as a unit.
  • Coexisitance (concurrent systems) —  Refers to two or more RF frequency emitting devices coexisting in the same local environment and still working correctly, without adverse affects. The total number coexisting devices is referred to as the "coexistence".
  • Compressed Sample —  Describes digitally sampled audio resampled from a number of data bits to a lower number of data bits. For example, digital audio can be compressed from 16 data bits to 6 data bits, or 5 data bits.
  • Control Channel —  Refers to the control data portion of an overall data packet that is transmitted from one RF device to another. For example with Squeak digital wireless audio the overall data packet typically consists of a digitized left audio channel, a digitized right audio channel, and control information.
  • Cross Platform —  A term that describes a language, software application or hardware device that works on more than one system (e.g. GameCube®, Xbox®, PlayStation®2, PC, Macintosh, etc.).

D-E

  • Data Encryption —  Programming technique that is used to encrypt (i.e. encode with an encryption key) source data presented to a wireless transmitter prior to the data being transmitted to the wireless receiver device. Once the encrypted data is received by the wireless receiver it is then un-encrypted by the program prior to output from the receiver. Data Scrambling provides a high level a security to the data while it is in the process of being wirelessly transmitted from the transmitter to the receiver.
  • Data Scrambling —  Programming technique that is used to scramble (or mix up) source data presented to a wireless transmitter prior to the data being transmitted to the wireless receiver device. Once the scrambled data is received by the wireless receiver it is then un-scrambled by the program prior to output from the receiver. Data Scrambling provides a moderate level a security to the data while it is in the process of being wirelessly transmitted from the transmitter to the receiver.
  • Decibel (dB) —  "dB" (or a decibel) is a ratio unit for expressing signal amplitudes. A decibel is calculated as 20 times the common logarithm of one amplitude divided by the amplitude of another (often a reference level). Mathematically it’s 20 log (V1/V2)
  • Decibel Full Scale (dB FS) —  "dB FS" (or decibels full-scale) is the same measure with respect to digital full scale. The full scale amplitude or zero dB FS value is the RMS value of a sine wave whose positive peak just reaches positive full scale.
  • Decibel-i (dBi) —  A measure of an antenna's inherent gain, with respect to is 50 ohm load, as compared to an ideal omni-directional isotropic antenna whose dBi gain is taken to be 0. An antenna's gain can only be empirically measured by experimental means.
  • Decibel-m (dBm) —  "dBm"  is a measure of wireless transmitter output power, expressed as a power level in a 50ohm load. 0dBm is defined as 1mW dissipation in a 50 ohm load. A dBm is calculated as 10 times the common logarithm of the actual output power amplitude (in mW) over a 1mW reference power level. Mathematically its: 10 log (P1/1mW) "dbm" is also used in audio and is correctly used when matched conditions exist. In audio 0dBm is defined as 1mW dissipation in  a 600 ohm load (most commonly). Note that in a 600 ohm matched system, .7746V across a 600 ohm load equals a dissipation of 1mW.
  • Decibel-u (dBu) —  "dBu"  is a measure of audio signal often used in professional gear. It is a decibel measurement relative to a reference of .7746 Volts RMS. Mathematically it’s 20 log (V1/.7746V) "dBu" is the proper unit to use unless it is definitely known a matched condition exists and the specific value of termination resistance is known.
  • Decibel-Volts (dBV) —  "dBV" is a measure of audio signal often used in consumer gear. It is a decibel measurement relative to a reference of 1 Volt RMS. Mathematically it’s 20 log (V1/1V)
  • Digital Audio Module (DAM) —  A DAM is a baseband module for RF communications of the Squeak digital wireless audio platform. The DAM had been replaced by the Digital Module (DM)
  • Digital Module (DM) —  A DM is the baseband module half of a WHAM2 module.
  • Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) —  A transmission technology used in WLAN (wireless LAN) transmissions where a data signal at the sending station is combined with a higher data rate bit sequence, or chipping code, that divides the user data according to a spreading ratio. The chipping code is a redundant bit pattern for each bit that is transmitted, which increases the signal's resistance to interference. If one or more bits in the pattern are damaged during transmission, the original data can be recovered due to the redundancy of the transmission.
  • Dynamic Bonding™ —  A SPIKE feature that enables great system flexibility. Any SPIKE control device can dynamically connect wirelessly to any SPIKE QuadX with no need for setting dip switches (enables mobility of control devices from one location to another and enables control devices to wirelessly select the desired port from the 4 available on a QuadX).
  • Dynamic Range —  Dynamic Range is a measure of the full scale digital representation of a sampled analog audio signal. Dynamic range is typically measured in decibels (dB). For example, an analog-to-digital converter chip can digitize analog audio into multiple samples of 16-bit binary numbers. A 16-bit binary number is equivalent to a decimal number with a value from 0 to 65535. This means that a sampled analog audio signal can be assign a digital number anywhere within the range of 0 to 65535. In total, 65536 audio levels can be represent with a 16-bit binary number therefore the dynamic range is 96.3dB (20log(65536) = 96.3dB). In the analog world Dynamic Range is a measure of the difference in level of the highest signal level a device can linearly handle to the level of the noise floor of that device.
  • Embedded Processor —  A small microprocessor that is used in a device to perform a specific task or control function.

F-I

  • Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) —  An integrated circuit (IC) that can be programmed in the field after manufacture. FPGAs can be used by engineers in the design of specialized ICs that can later be produced hard-wired in large quantities for distribution to computer manufacturers and end users.
  • Firmware —  The Program of software used by the embedded processor.
  • Flash Memory —  Sometimes called "flash ram" is a type of nonvolatile memory that can be erased and reprogrammed in units of memory called blocks. its contents are retained even without power supplied and can be reprogrammed repeatedly.
  • Frequency Hopping —  A digital communication modulation scheme where the frequency-channel that an RF device is using can jump from frequency-channel to frequency-channel, on an ongoing basis. For Example, if an RF device determines that it is utilizing a hoisy frequency-channel then the RF device can change to a different frequency-channel. This technique is referred to as frequency hopping.
  • Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) —  A transmission technology in which the data signal is modulated with a narrowband carrier signal that "hops" in random but in a known sequence from frequency to frequency as a function of time over a wide band of frequencies.
  • FSK Digital Radio (FSK) —  An acronym that means "frequency shift-key". FSK Digital Radio is a type of wireless digital communication modulation.
  • HFADPCM Audio Compression (HFADPCM) —  An acronym that means "Hi-Fidelity Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation". HFADPCM Audio Compression is term that describes a type of audio compression scheme that is used to compress digitally sampled audio (form a number of data bits to a lower number of data bits). For example, this compression scheme can compress digital audio from 16 data bits to 6 data bits, or 5 data bits.
  • Hi-Fidelity (Hi-Fi) —  A qualitative term that means that the transmission of information (i.e. audio information) between two wireless devices has no perceivable differences between the original information transmitted and the reproduced information received. The term "Hi-Fidelity" is typically employed to describe a system with no user perceivable deficiencies in the audio output, whatsoever, as compared to the original audio source. The extent to which a system is considered to have Hi-Fidelity is limited by certain practical considerations, including: Analog-to-Digital converter sampling, sampling rate, sampling dynamic range, frequency response, data compression encoding, data compression decoding, Digital-to-Analog converter, audio output filter, circuit board layout, power supply output quality, etc.
  • HomeRF —  A home networking standard developed by primarily by Proxim Inc. HomeRF uses a frequency-hopping technique to deliver speeds of up to 1.6 Mbps over distances of up to 150 ft - too short a range for most business applications, but suitable for the home market that it was specifically developed for.
  • Hopping Channels —  Defined as the total number of frequency-channels that a RF device can utilize for wireless communication. For example, if the RF device determines that it is utilizing a noisy frequency channel then the RF device can change to a different frequency-channel. The total number of frequency-channels that it can hop between is referred to as "Hopping Channels".
  • Hybrid FEC/ARQ with AFH —  A type of digital encoding scheme, that is used to encode/decode digitized audio data before it is transmitted (or after it is received).
  • Indoor Range —  A measure of the maximum distance that a wireless RF receiver can be located away from a wireless RF transmitter in an indoor building, with the quality of service (QoS) between the two devices unimpeded in any way. Since Indoor Range is highly dependant upon the actual room layout, building materials and construction, Indoor range is not typically measured in an indoor room directly. Instead, Indoor Range is typically calculated by taking the Outdoor Range and dividing it by a scaling number.
  • Integrated Circuit (IC) —  A complex set of electronic components and their interconnections that are etched or imprinted on a chip.
  • Intellectual Property (IP) —  Unique creations: inventions, literary work, artistic compositions, symbols, names, images, and design mechanisms.

J-M

  • Key Remapping —  A SPIKE feature that allows the user to change the functionality of any and all keys, triggers, and joysticks on their control device by re-assigning the function to a different key, trigger or joystick.
  • kilo-bits-per-second (kbps) —  A measure of data transfer (1 kbps = 1,000 bits per second).
  • Latency —  The amount of timing delay from an analog audio input (at the Tx) to an analog audio output (at the Rx). The amount of latency in a system is determined by several time-delaying mechanisms: analog-to-digital conversion, data compression, RF transmission of the data, data receive buffering, data de-compression, and digital-to-analog conversion. Latency is an input setting that is typically included as a feature in an audio product. Latency is typically measured in milliseconds (ms), with typical values range from 15 ms to 148 ms. A lower latency setting is typically desired for a home theatre surround sound application and a higher latency setting is typically desired for hi-fidelity audiophile application.
  • Left/Right Syncronization —  A measure of the difference in audio output timing between the left channel audio output and the right channel audio output, in a stereo audio device. Synchronization is typically measured in units of microseconds (μs), and is specified as the time delay of the right channel audio output, as compared to the output of the left channel.
  • Line-of-Sight —  Wireless communication that requires a clear, straight line from the transmitter to the receiver with no objects in between (typical characteristic of Infra-Red technology).
  • Master-Slave —  Master-slave refers to a common configuration of devices where there is one unit that controls the other(s). For Squeak TX = master, RX = slave.
  • Mega-bits-per-second (Mbps) —  A measure of data transfer (1 Mbps = 1,000,000 bits per second).
  • Multiplayer —  A SPIKE function that allows up to 16 players to connect to a video game console or multiple video game consoles concurrently.
  • Multipoint —  A SPIKE function that allows a single Master Device connects wirelessly to multiple Slave Devices.
  • Multitap —  A device that enables 4 player capability on the PlayStation® and PlayStation2 video game consoles. Two Multitap devices allow up to 8 players per console.
  • Multithreaded —  A single embedded processor capable of having more than one program running simultaneously.
  • Multitype —  A SPIKE function that allows more than one type of game control device to bond wirelessly to a QuadX transceiver (ie. A gamepad, fishing rod, light gun, and driving wheel all bonded to the same QuadX transceiver concurrently).

N-O

  • Nanocell —  A radio wireless service cell with a diameter of 100m or less.
  • Nanocell Platform —  Technology that enables wireless communication inside of a nanocell (100m or less).
  • Noise Gate —  A function that is typically included as a feature in an audio product to automatically mute the output audio when the audio level is reduced below a minimum threshold value.
  • Nonvolatile Memory —  A general term for all forms of solid state (no moving parts) memory that do not lose their contents when the power source is removed. This includes all forms of read-only memory (ROM) such as programmable read-only memory, erasable programmable read-only memory, electrically erasable programmable read-only memory, and flash memory.
  • Outdoor (open field) Range —  A measure of the maximum distance that a wireless RF receiver can be located away from a wireless RF transmitter in an outdoor field setting, with the quality of service (QoS) between the two devices unimpeded in any way. Outdoor Range is direct distance measured that is typically performed in an open outdoor field with no buildings or other obstacles between the wireless devices.
  • Passive Listener Receive Mode —  An Eleven Engineering term that describes a system where a wireless transmitter device: (1) maintains a 2-way actively bonded signal to at least one wireless receiver device (up to two devices), and (2) the transmitter also sends a 1-way digitized signal to one or more wireless receiver devices that operate in passive listener mode. The transmission takes place with data acknowledgement feedback from the actively bonded wireless receiver device(s) back to the transmitter device for the purpose of maintaining a high level if signal integrity with the wireless transmitter and the receivers on passive listener mode benefit from the high level of signal integrity as a result.
  • Peripheral —  An auxiliary device, such as a game controller or remote control unit, that works in conjunction with a host (ie. video game console or computer).
  • Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) —  Any small mobile hand-held device (ie. Palm Pilot, Handspring, Visor, etc.) that provides computing and information storage and retrieval capabilities for personal or business use, often for keeping schedule calendars and address book information handy.
  • Point-to-Point (Peer-to-Peer) (P2P) —  Wireless connectivity that allows communication between two devices on a one-to-one basis without the need for a central base station.
  • Private Branch Exchange (PBX) —  A private telephone network. Users of a PBX can share a limited number of outside lines to make and receive calls on various lines within the PBX.
  • QuadX™ —  QuadX is Eleven's brand name for the SPIKE wireless hub. The QuadX transmits and receives wireless digital signals with up to four control devices concurrently. The QuadX is available for all video game platforms (PlayStation®, GameCube™, Xbox™, and PC/Mac) and is compatible with all SPIKE control devices.
  • Quality of Service (QoS) —  A qualitative term that means that the transmission of information between two wireless devices is unimpeded and uncorrupted in any way (i.e. no mutes, no audio drop outs, no lost bonds, etc) from transmitter to receiver. The term "Quality of Service" (QoS) or "Hi-Quality of Service" (Hi-QoS) is typically employed to describe a system with no loss of transmitted signal service. The extent to which a system is considered to have Quality of Service is limited by certain practical considerations, including: Indoor Range, Outdoor Range, Coexistence rating, the operating environment that the system is being used in, and the unimpeded affect on other types of concurrent systems in the local vicinity (i.e. cordless phones, Ethernet routers, microwave ovens, etc), etc.

R-S

  • Radio Frequency (RF) —  An electromagnetic field produced from alternating current (AC) with a frequency greater than 3 kilohertz (KHz). This range includes radio and television transmissions.
  • Radio Frequency Module (RFM) —  An RFM is the RF communication module half of a WHAM2 module.
  • Raw Data Rate —  Defined as the speed at which a wireless device can transmit raw data, where "raw data" means individual numerical bits (i.e. binary 0s and 1s). Raw data is made up of both control transmission bits and data information bits. Raw Data Rate is typically measured in kbps or Mbps.
  • Receive Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) —  Receive Signal Strength Indicator
  • Receiver Device (Wireless) (Rx) —  In a wireless system it is a device that primarily receives data. In some cases a control channel may be sent back to the transmitter device (Tx).
  • ReLoad™ —  Battery swapping mechanism developed by Eleven Engineering. Allows a battery to be changed in less than 1 second.
  • RF Center Frequency —  Refers to the center frequency of a wireless radio frequency channel. For example, a frequency channel that spans from 2.400GHz to 2.402GHz, has a center frequency in the middle at 2.401GHz (i.e. (2.402GHz - 2.4000GHz) / 2 = 2.401GHz).
  • Robust —  Referring to a technology that is well developed and tested to withstand the rigors associated with its use.
  • Semiconductor —  Any of various solid crystalline substances, such as silicon, having electrical conductivity greater than insulators but less than good conductors. Semiconductors are used as a base material for computer chips and other active electronic devices.
  • Short-Haul Wireless —  Wireless technology that operates within a short range (as compared to large cell technologies such as Satellite).
  • Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) —  SNR is an acronym that means "signal-to-noise ratio". SNR is a measure of the ratio of a reference level to the level with no signal applied and the input shorted or loaded with a specified load. SNR is measured in units of decibels (dB), and this measurement can be "unweighted" (with no specific filtering applied) or weighted (using a specified weighting filter such as an A-weighting filter). Note that an SNR number is meaningless unless the reference level, reference frequency, and bandwidth of the measurement is known or specified.
  • SPIKE (xiSPIKE™) —  SPIKE is a wireless solution that provides an inexpensive RF link between a base transceiver (connected to a video game console) and one or more control devices of various types. The system software automatically negotiates the feature set supported by each control device as it is added. SPIKE for wireless video game control is being designed to support PlayStation® 2, Xbox™, GameCube™, and PC / Macintosh video game systems.

T-V

  • Tokaido (TO) —  Eleven’s marketing name for its line of RF (radio frequency) modules. Every RF module in Eleven’s catalog has a part number starting with the letters “TO” for Tokaido.
  • Total Harmonic Distortion (plus Noise) (THD+N) —  THD (or THD+N) is an acronym that means "total harmonic distortion (plus noise)". THD+N is a measure of the amount of audio distortion from an audio system, as a result of imperfections in the reproduction of the audio signal (and also as a result of the amount of noise in the system). THD+N is typically measured in units of percentage (%), with respect to a specified reference frequency at a specified level. Weighting filters are not used with this measurement, though band limiting filters such as AES17 may be specified.
  • Transceiver —  A transceiver is a combination transmitter/receiver in a single package. The term applies to wireless communications devices such as cellular telephones, cordless telephone sets, handheld two-way radios, and mobile two-way radios. The term is also used in reference to transmitter/receiver devices in cable or optical fiber systems.
  • Transmitter Device (Wireless) (Tx) —  In a wireless system it is a device that primarily sends data. In some cases a receiver device (Rx) may send a control channel back to the transmitter device (Tx).
  • Universal Serial Bus (USB) —  A hardware interface for low-speed peripherals such as the keyboard, mouse, joystick, scanner, printer and telephony devices.
  • Voice Command Recognition —  An application that allows control using one's voice.
  • Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) —  Any technology providing voice telephony services over internet connections.
  • Voice-Chat Applications —  Refers to the use of audio data for simple voice transmission such as internet telephone applications.

W-Z

  • Wireless Hi-Fi Audio Module (WHAM) —  A Wireless HiFi Audio Module is comprised of both a baseband module and an RF communications module. "WHAM1" means version 1 of the WHAM module. "WHAM2" means version 2 of the WHAM module.
  • Wireless Universal Serial Bus (WUSB) —  Facilitates a point-to-point wireless USB connection.
  • XInC —  XInC is Eleven's multithreaded embedded processor. It is used to implement the various wireless protocols and also has tremendous market potential on its own. The XInC architecture can be applied to various existing wireless protocols and may also be used as a general-purpose embedded processor
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